The committee process goes through several different phases, which include:
- Standing Committees and Councils
- Study Committees
- Conference Committee
- Joint Committees
- List of Committees
Committees: A General Introduction
The committee system is the heart of the legislative process. The committee does what the Senate and the House of Representatives could not do as well by functioning as a whole. The committee can and should do the fact-finding groundwork.
The formation of committees breaks down the membership into numerous small groups. Opportunity is thus afforded the Senate and the House for closer study of a bill than would be possible in debate on the floor. In this preliminary screening, the committee will hear from the legislator who introduced the bill. It will hear, too, from other legislators who either favor or oppose the bill.
The committee may go outside the Legislature to learn the opinion of interested persons who may be well informed on the subject of the bill. The committee can subpoena for witnesses and for records. It can also use the research facilities of the Legislature to analyze the situation here and in other states. Citizens who wish to be heard are also allowed to speak at committee meetings.
Technically, both the Senate and the House, sitting as a committee, could do all these things. But committees can and do perform the work more efficiently and thoroughly. The volume of business in today's Georgia Legislature is considerable. It would be difficult to complete if the entire body attempted to study every bill upon its introduction.
Basically, there are standing, study, and conference committees.
Standing committees are established by the Senate and the House of Representatives for the management of their business. They are established by authority of rules separately adopted by the Senate and by the House. The appointment of committee members , chairs and vice-chairs occurs at the beginning of each new term. The committee then has the responsibility of vetting the legislation. Each committee considers legislation within its field of expertise.
The presiding officer refers bills to one or more committees for review. Committees may vote to report the following actions on a bill: favorable, favorable with amendments or by substitute, or unfavorable. If amendments are adopted, they still must be heard and adopted by the full legislative body.
It also should be kept in mind that nearly every bill must travel the same long road in each house. A Senate-passed bill may be referred to one or more committees when it reaches the House of Representatives. And the same is true in the Senate of a House-passed measure.
Study committees are those that have been appointed or selected to perform a specific task or study a specific issue.
For a bill to become an act it must be passed by both houses in precisely the same words and figures. The second house frequently amends and then returns the bill to the house of origin.
In the case of significant bills, with substantial differences, the shortcut of a conference committee likely will be taken almost immediately.
Conference committees are among the oldest of lawmaking procedures, dating back to the early days of the British Parliament. In America, colonial legislatures used conference committees. In Congress, a conference committee was appointed on its second day, in 1789.
A conference committee is composed of 3 members from the Senate and 3 members from the House of Representatives. As a separate committee, they vote separately, not only on the final product but on any subsidiary questions put to a vote. A majority of the committee prevails.
Conference committees are intended to reconcile differences. This suggests a give-and-take process because if a majority of the conferees from either house refuses to budge, the conference would be stalemated and the bill could fail. However, this rarely happens.
The Senate and House have the conference committee report presented on a take-it-or-leave-it basis. No amendments can be offered. Occasionally, a report will be rejected and the bill sent back to conference. Usually, however, conference reports are submitted in the waning hours of a session when the shortness of time might mean the bill would be lost or the Legislature called into an extended or special session. Thus, the committee has the pressure of time on its side.
The conferees are generally appointed from the committee that handled the bill but sometimes the President or Speaker will go outside the committee to select one or more conferees. Usually this occurs when the House/Senate has so amended the bill during floor consideration that the bill may no longer resemble the bill reported from the committee. Then, those who shaped the bill during floor consideration may more easily speak for the House/Senate in the conference committee.
Joint committees are composed of both House and Senate members.